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Computer G. MCQ Most viewed pages Linux Best Distros of C programming optimization techniques. C programming tips for Embedded Development. Basic rules of writing a C program. Compound statements are made up of two or more program statements that are executed together. Compound statements can also be executed within a loop. Before a program can be written, an algorithm has to be created first. An algorithm provides a step by step procedure on how a solution can be derived.
It also acts as a blueprint on how a program will start and end, including what process and computations are involved. When storing multiple related data, it is a good idea to use arrays. This is because arrays are named using only 1 word followed by an element number.
With arrays, only 1 name is used, the rest are accessible through the index name grade, grade, grade… grade. This is a common mistake for programmers, often leading to logical errors. Random numbers are generated in C using the rand command.
The most probable reason behind this error is that the header file for that function was not indicated at the top of the program. Header files contain the definition and prototype for functions and commands used in a C program. Comments are a great way to put some remarks or description in a program.
It can serves as a reminder on what the program is all about, or a description on why a certain code or function was placed there in the first place. Comments can be a single line, or can even span several lines.
It can be placed anywhere in the program. Debugging is the process of identifying errors within a program. During program compilation, errors that are found will stop the program from executing completely. At this state, the programmer would look into the possible portions where the error occurred. Debugging ensures the removal of errors, and plays an important role in ensuring that the expected program output is met. When using this operator, all conditions specified must be TRUE before the next action can be performed.
There is no single command or function in C that can check if a number is odd or even. However, this can be accomplished by dividing that number by 2, then checking the remainder. If the remainder is 0, then that number is even, otherwise, it is odd. You can write it in code as:. This format is used for two things: The number before the decimal point is for the allotted space, in this case it would allot 10 spaces for the output number. If the number of space occupied by the output number is less than 10, addition space characters will be inserted before the actual output number.
Program that contains logical errors tend to pass the compilation process, but the resulting output may not be the expected one. This happens when a wrong formula was inserted into the code, or a wrong sequence of commands was performed. Syntax errors, on the other hand, deal with incorrect commands that are misspelled or not recognized by the compiler. There are 3 main control structures in programming: Sequence, Selection and Repetition. Sequential control follows a top to bottom flow in executing a program, such that step 1 is first perform, followed by step 2, all the way until the last step is performed.
This also means that not all codes may be executed, and there are alternative flows within. Repetitions are also known as loop structures, and will repeat one or two program statements set by a counter. The is also known as the OR operator in C programming. For comparing string values, there is another function called strcmp that deals specifically with strings. Preprocessor directives are placed at the beginning of every C program. This is where library files are specified, which would depend on what functions are to be used in the program.
Another use of preprocessor directives is the declaration of constants. Preprocessor directives begin with the symbol.
The outcome will be TRUE. Just the same, s! Order of precedence determines which operation must first take place in an operation statement or conditional statement. On the top most level of precedence are the unary operators! Instead, use the strcpy function. The correct statement would be: To get the length of a string value, use the function strlen. For example, if you have a variable named FullName, you can get the length of the stored string value by using this statement: This is because C language is rich in features that make it behave like a high level language while at the same time can interact with hardware using low level methods.
The use of a well structured approach to programming, coupled with English-like words used in functions, makes it act as a high level language. On the other hand, C can directly access memory structures similar to assembly language routines. Source codes in C are saved with.
C file extension. Header files or library files have the. H file extension. Every time a program source code is successfully compiled, it creates an. OBJ object file, and an executable. EXE file. Reserved words are words that are part of the standard C language library. This means that reserved words have special meaning and therefore cannot be used for purposes other than what it is originally intended for.
Examples of reserved words are int, void, and return. A linked list is composed of nodes that are connected with another. In C programming, linked lists are created using pointers. Using linked lists is one efficient way of utilizing memory for storage. In C programming, there is a data structure known as queue. A queue represents a line wherein the first data that was stored will be the first one that is accessible as well.
Binary trees are actually an extension of the concept of linked lists. A binary tree has two pointers, a left one and a right one.
Each side can further branch to form additional nodes, which each node having two pointers as well.
All reserved words must be written in lowercase; otherwise the C compiler would interpret this as unidentified and invalid. In the first expression, the increment would happen first on variable a, and the resulting value will be the one to be used. This is also known as a prefix increment. In the second expression, the current value of variable a would the one to be used in an operation, before the value of a itself is incremented.
This is also known as postfix increment.
C language is a case sensitive language. An endless loop can mean two things. One is that it was designed to loop continuously until the condition within the loop is met, after which a break function would cause the program to step out of the loop.
Another idea of an endless loop is when an incorrect loop condition was written, causing the loop to run erroneously forever. Endless loops are oftentimes referred to as infinite loops. A flowchart provides a visual representation of the step by step procedure towards solving a given problem. Flowcharts are made of symbols, with each symbol in the form of different shapes.
The word void is a reserved word in C language. You cannot use reserved words as a user-defined variable. Assuming that INT is a variable of type float, this statement is valid. One may think that INT is a reserved word and must not be used for other purposes. However, recall that reserved words are express in lowercase, so the C compiler will not interpret this as a reserved word. When you create and use functions that need to perform an action on some given values, you need to pass these given values to that function.
The values that are being passed into the called function are referred to as actual arguments. This is used to insert a new line when displaying data in the output screen. A newline escape sequence can be placed before the actual output expression or after.
It is the process of transferring data to an alternative output source other than the display screen. Output redirection allows a program to have its output saved to a file.
These are errors that occur while the program is being executed. One common instance wherein run-time errors can happen is when you are trying to divide a number by zero. When run-time errors occur, program execution will pause, showing which program line caused the error.
These 2 functions basically perform the same action, which is to get the absolute value of the given value. Abs is used for integer values, while fabs is used for floating type numbers. In using functions in a C program, formal parameters contain the values that were passed by the calling function. The values are substituted in these formal parameters and used in whatever operations as indicated within the main body of the called function.
Control structures take charge at which instructions are to be performed in a program. This means that program flow may not necessarily move from one statement to the next one, but rather some alternative portions may need to be pass into or bypassed from, depending on the outcome of the conditional statements. The switch statement is best used when dealing with selections based on a single variable or expression.
However, switch statements can only evaluate integer and character data types. Global variables are variables that can be accessed and manipulated anywhere in the program. To make a variable global, place the variable declaration on the upper portion of the program, just after the preprocessor directives section. Enumerated types allow the programmer to use more meaningful words as values to a variable.
Each item in the enumerated type variable is actually associated with a numeric code. It is used to convert any letter to its upper case mode. Note that this function will only convert a single character, and not an entire string. Yes, that is allowed in C programming. You just need to include the entire function prototype into the parameter field of the other function where it is to be used. Multidimensional arrays are capable of storing data in a two or more dimensional structure.
For example, you can use a 2 dimensional array to store the current position of pieces in a chess game, or position of players in a tic-tac-toe program. The strcat function. It takes two parameters, the source string and the string value to be appended to the source string. Both functions will accept a character input value from the user.